Basic Car Components

1. Spark Plug- The use of spark plug is to bring sparks in the firing system of the engine before the combination of fuel to make the engine start.

2. Battery– To start the engine a car must have a battery just like a remote control items which have this component too.

3. Starter motor- This component is a mechanism to make the gearbox flywheel spin order to turn on the engine.

4. Firing distributor- In order to distribute the sparks, engine must have this as well as the spark plug cable before the engine can run. There 2 types of firing distributor which are electronic and non electronic firing distributor.

5. Plug cable- It is an important part to make the sparks distributed to all the spark plug and the engine can run on their own consistently.

6. Ignition coil- this is a mechanism to keep the sparks energy and it goes along with distributor to spread the sparks all over the engine using a plug cable.

All above are the basic components of firing system in any vehicle engine.

Now we move to the fuel system of a car. It is very important to know that fuel is a main component also in engine system,without fuel the engine cannot even run and the rest of engine components also cannot play their role.

1. Fuel pump- To spread the fuel to carburator or injector we need this component to suck fuel from the fuel tank.

2. fuel filter- To filter fuel from dust or any tiny items from fuel tank after reaching a fuel pump.

3. fuel tank- It is tank to keep the fuel and always located at the bottom of a car.

4. Fuel injection- as a new technology in automotive fuel system after carburator this components act as an injector to maintain the ratio of air and fuel in keeping the idle system of the engine to run.

5. Carburator- the old fuel system now being replaced by fuel injector and the role still the same.

Bumper Repair

o Don’t try to do it yourself. The Internet and car parts shops are filled with DIY bumper repair kits and other bumper paint options, but they rarely work. In fact, many plastic bumper repairs done by professionals are actually repairs of botched DIY repair jobs.

o Don’t pay more than you have to. Getting professional bumper touch-up work is actually quite economical, especially if you shop around for good prices ahead of time. When you choose a specialty plastic bumper repair company, you should be offered prices about 50 percent lower than what you’d expect from a traditional auto body and paint shop.

o Don’t go to them – let them come to you. The best companies for this type of work are mobile bumper repair companies. It’s pretty standard procedure for the professional come to your home or office to get the work done when it is the most convenient for you. Don’t settle for anything less.

o Don’t wash the car right away. Although you can touch the repaired area, and rain won’t do any damage, the scrubbing motions and the chemicals in soap can cause some of the fresh bumper paint to weaken. Wait at least one week before you wash your vehicle.

o Don’t wax the car for at least one month. As with washing, the chemicals in certain types of car wax can damage your new paint job. Allow it to harden and seal naturally, and then you can start treating your vehicle with normal care.

Deal With a Dead Car Battery

In any car, the battery should be checked regularly to make sure it’s working well.  Cables need to be correctly connected and battery posts should be clean.  If you’re unable to jump start your car, you’ll need to have it towed to a service station, so try everything else first.  Don’t just assume your battery is dead and you need a new one.  There are battery chargers and similar car accessories that plug into an outlet.  These can be used to fix your dead battery, or you could try jumper cables.  Just make sure you follow a few basic safety precautions before doing anything with the battery.

If you’re going to be working under the hood, you’ll need to make sure it’s secure to prevent it from falling unexpectedly.  A falling hood probably won’t injure you, but it can hurt!  Remember to check your manual to find out the correct way to deal with your battery, especially if you’ll be installing a new one.  Your car manual can tell you more about what to do with your specific make and model than any general article or piece of advice from a friend.  The newer and more advanced your car is, the more likely it is to have some kind of special instructions for dealing with a dead car battery.  The price of car parts, such as a new battery, will also depend on the type of car you have.  Some batteries are much more expensive than others.

Be extremely careful if you’ll be jump starting your car in the cold, since a dead battery can freeze if the temperature is below ten or fifteen degrees.  Jumping the car at this temperature could result in an explosion!  If you need to jump in this kind of weather, allow the car that’s being used to jump yours to run for a few minutes, with cables attached, to warm the battery.  If it’s very cold, you should stand ten feet or more from the car and wait up to half an hour.  Don’t be tempted to rush this – if you can, find a warm place to stay while you’re waiting for the car to start.

No matter what weather you’re jumping in, be sure not to make the final connection on the battery terminal.  That’s because dead batteries can off gas and sparks may ignite this gas.  Make the last connection on a metal surface in the car, instead.  Wear safety goggles if you can, and if they’re not available, don’t look at the battery when you make the connection – if an explosion occurs, this will protect your face.  Start both cars at once, and if yours is sluggish, let the other car charge your dead car battery for a few minutes.  If your headlights burn brightly, you should be able to start your car.

If you need a new battery, check for a store that sells car parts and car accessories, and be prepared to pay for it.  Installation can be done on your own, but remember the basic safety precautions and remember that you’ll be responsible for disposal of the dead battery after it’s removed.  A fresh battery in a car that’s in good working condition should last for years.  If it doesn’t – something else may be wrong, and different car parts may need to be replaced.  That’s one reason to have a professional check your car if you’re having battery problems.  He or she can recommend the right car accessories to fix the problem.

Replace the Wiper Blades

First you need to make sure you have the right kind of wiper blades. Most auto part stores are able to tell you or they will have a book that you can look up the make and model of your vehicle. They can vary in price starting as low as eight dollars.

Once you have the proper blades, you are ready to change them. First lift up one of the blades and pull up on it away from the car. The arm and blade will now be in a diagonal position and there should be a clip at the bottom. To actually remove the wiper completely you will need to lift up the clip and then remove the wiper.

Next, just snap the new wiper onto the clip. Ensure you replace the wipers with the correct size that you had removed. Often the driver side one is larger than the passenger side one. Repeat these steps for both the passenger and driver side. When finished, properly dispose of old materials.

You will now be able to see out of your windows on those rainy days. You will be happy to hear that you shouldn’t have a difficult time seeing out your windows anymore, well at least until you need to replace them again.

Paintless Dent Removal

Paintless Dent Removal (PDR) is a process that everyone with dings, dents and creases in their car, van, or even motor bikes tanks can benefit from!

So what is so Special about the Paintless Dent Removal process?

Paintless Dent Removal is the process of repairing your cars dings, dents and creases using specially developed tools; dents can be literally massages back into their original state within minutes, without harming your vehicles paint work whilst maintaining your cars original factory finish.

The process is carried out from behind the dent by an experienced, skilled technician using specialist PDR tools. A paintless dent repair is gained through small access holes, door openings and by removing interior trim and inner wheel arch moldings that lead us directly behind the dented area.

When this is achieved, the skilled technician will take notice by ‘reading the dent’ and then starts the process of massaging the panel back to it’s original state.

What are the benefits of the Paintless Dent Removal process?

1. PDR is a low cost process due to no materials used such as paint, filler or any consumables making the process up to 3-4 times cheaper than a conventional body shop.

2. Because the dents are removed without painting or filling there is no risk or over spraying or mismatched colours. So the paint remains untouched and the bodywork retains its original factory finish.

3. Most Paintless Dent Repair technician’s offer a quick, friendly service and most dents can be repaired within the hour.

4. There’s no need to make an insurance claim as most repairs cost less than your insurance excess.

5. A fast convenient ,mobile service can mean the dents can be repaired at the convenience of your home or place of work so no loss of your vehicle while it is away at the body shop.

6. The process doesn’t involve any rubbing down, filler, paint or chemicals so is 100{c6270b8a5534a9b88973157c93e89778d75cc981ae2cdbca847f069140a63716} environmentally friendly.

7. Removing car dents have shown that it adds value and makes it easier to sell.

Car Water Damage

If you have car water damage in your car, you will need to tend to it quickly for best results. If your car is involved in a flood, it may very likely have been submerged. This can affect, not only the cosmetics of your vehicle, but the electronic system, as well.

Even if your car hasn’t been submerged there could still be significant damage. If you drive through a flooded area or there is a way for water to enter the engine, this could also cause serious problems. Any large dents in the hood could also be an area for it to enter.

If you have been involved in a flood, first check all of your fluids. If they are an off color, have your vehicle towed to an auto mechanic. Don’t drive it! You may cause permanent problems. They will empty the fluids and replace them properly for you.

If you have a newer car, the electrical system may also be involved. If you are in doubt… the dash lights on, running rough etc, tow it to a mechanic. They may need to replace the components.

Your brakes could also be involved. Have them inspected to make sure that they will perform properly. It is possible you may also need to replace them.

If the interior is involved, you will need to clean it well. You can use a wet vac to vacuum most of the water out. If it is soaked, you may find you need to redo the interior due to mold. It is too difficult to dry out the inner seats and many insurance companies will total a car that has interior water damage.

You will need to also check all of the lubricated joints. Most cars are now lubricated at the factory for life, but with flooding, they may have been compromised and will need to be re-lubricated.

Car Maintenance For Women

Oil changes are a necessity (but not as often as you may think). Do you vaguely remember your father telling you that a car needs an oil change every three months? While it’s true that regular oil changes are critical to an engine’s long term well-being, you may not to visit the Jiffy Lube as often as they would like you to believe. Get out your car’s maintenance manual (it’s probably still in the glove compartment where it was the day you drove your new car off the lot), and check to see what the manufacturer recommends for oil changes. You may find that every 6,000 to 7,000 miles is sufficient for your car’s make and model. But if you aren’t sure, don’t skimp.

And while we’re talking about oil changes, you can forget the every-three-month rule as well. The mileage driven has much more effect on the condition of your oil than does the calendar. If you are a senior citizen who only drives a few thousand miles a year, you can probably get away with an oil change every six months.

Which brings us to tires. Be honest, have you ever had your tires rotated? If not, you are going to end up replacing your tires more frequently than is necessary. At an average cost of $100 per tire, that can be an expensive oversight. Your tires should be rotated about twice a year, so plan to have it done when you change your oil, or every other oil change if you are still changing your oil every three months.

Your tires will also last longer if you drive on properly inflated tires. But what is properly inflated? It depends on the make and model of your car. You can check the sticker on the inside of the car door to learn the proper inflation for your tires, which is measured by PSI (or pounds per square inch). Driving on properly inflated tires will help your tires last longer, improve your gas mileage and help to avoid a dangerous blowout on the road. You can easily find an automotive shop that will check the inflation of your tires when they are doing your oil change. If they don’t offer that service, find another shop that does.

If you are using a quicky oil change shop for your oil changes and tire checks, it is a good idea to take you car into the dealer for a more thorough check up at least once a year. Your auto mechanic is more qualified to check brakes, spark plugs, radiator coolant, transmission fluid and belts. They will also know the history of the car and can recommend regular tune-ups when necessary.

Don’t forget to keep records and receipts for all of your auto maintenance and repairs. In the event you have to make a warranty claim, your records will help prove to the manufacturer that you have properly maintained the vehicle. Your records will also help you get the most amount of money when you sell the car, as you can prove to the new buyer that the car has been properly maintained.

Car Tuning

Car Tuning – tuning characteristics The motor vehicle is one of their features modified factory exterior, interior and mechanically.

The exterior changes are the usual expansion of body, especially at the height of the wheels, wider fenders, wheels with tires low heel, tires as original as possible, particularly striking and many inches – anchas -.

Spoilers, new paint, tinted windows where the laws permit, drawings, plotters – casts applied -. Rear spoiler. Mirrors stylized.

The interior is replaced by a sports steering wheel, carpets of other fittings with metal pedals-pedal – some ergonomic seats for sports, the CD player by a team of very powerful and sophisticated sound with large and heavy speakers .

In modifying the mechanics of the engine and transmission system.

The brakes should be all disc and suspension requires appropriate modifications to achieve more speed, often lowers the height of the vehicle.

The cushions are often cut and replaced by others of a different provision.

If possible to add a turbo kit to the engine and a nitrous oxide (N2O) – taking into account the risk.

The exhaust system is changed and generally aletrado. Wanted better service and better performance as the design developed by the factory. The changes affect the aerodynamics, design and aesthetics.

Alternator Work

Alternators are typically found near the front of the engine and are driven by the crankshaft, which converts the pistons’ up-and-down movement into circular movement. Some early model vehicles used a separate drive belt from the crankshaft pulley to the alternator pulley, but most cars today have a serpentine belt, or one belt that drives all components that rely on crankshaft power. Most alternators are mounted using brackets that bolt to a specific point on the engine. One of the brackets is usually a fixed point, while the other is adjustable to tighten the drive belt.

Alternators produce AC power through electromagnetism formed through the stator and rotor relationship that we’ll touch on later in the article. The electricity is channeled into the battery, providing voltage to run the various electrical systems. Before we learn more about the mechanics of the alternator and how it generates electricity, let’s look at the various parts of an alternator in the next section.

Alternator Components

For the most part, alternators are relatively small and lightweight. Roughly the size of a coconut, the alternators found in most passenger cars and light trucks are constructed using an aluminum outer housing, as the lightweight metal does not magnetize. This is important since aluminum dissipates the tremendous heat generated by producing the electrical power and since the rotor assembly produces a magnetic field.

If you closely inspect an alternator, you’ll find it has vents on both the front and back side. Again, this aids in heat dissipation. A drive pulley is attached to the rotor shaft on the front of the alternator. When the engine is running, the crankshaft turns the drive belt, which in turn spins the pulley on the rotor shaft. In essence, the alternator transfers the mechanical energy from the engine into electrical power for the car’s accessories.

On the back side of the alternator you’ll find several terminals (or connecting points in an electrical circuit). Let’s take a look at those:

S terminal – Senses battery voltage
IG terminal – Ignition switch that turns the voltage regulator on
L terminal – Closes the circuit to the warning lamp
B terminal – Main alternator output terminal (connected to the battery)
F terminal – Full-field bypass for regulator

Cooling is essential to an alternator’s efficiency. It’s easy to spot an older unit by the external fan blades found on the rotor shaft behind the pulley. Modern alternators have cooling fans inside the aluminum housing. These fans operate the same way, using mechanical power from the spinning rotor shaft.

As we start to disassemble the alternator, we find the diode rectifier (or rectifier bridge), the voltage regulator, slip rings and brushes. The regulator distributes the power the alternator creates, and it controls the output of power to the battery. The rectifier bridge converts the power, as we’ll learn in the next section, while the brushes and slip rings help conduct current to the rotor field winding, or wire field. Now let’s crack the coconut open.

Opening the alternator reveals a large cylinder with triangular finger poles around the circumference. This is the rotor. A basic alternator is made up of a series of alternating finger pole pieces placed around coil wires called field windings that wrap around an iron core on the rotor shaft. Since we know the pulley attaches to the shaft, we can now visualize how the rotor spins inside the stator. The rotor assembly fits inside the stator with enough room or tolerance between the two, so the rotor can spin at high speeds without striking the stator wall. On each end of the shaft sits a brush and a slip ring.

As we touched on briefly, alternators generate power through magnetism. The triangular finger poles fixed around the circumference of the rotor are staggered, so the north and south poles alternate as they surround the wire rotor field windings. This alternating pattern creates the magnetic field that in turn induces voltage into the stator. Think of the stator as the catcher’s glove as it harnesses all the power created by the spinning rotor.

All these components work together to give us the power we need to run our vehicles. Tesla captured this electrical energy and used it to light up cities, but we only need enough volts to power our stereo, lights, windows and locks. Let’s take a look at how the alternator produces that power in the next section.

Understanding Alternator Power Output

In the early days, cars used generators rather than alternators to power the vehicle’s electrical system and charge the battery. That’s not the case anymore. As automotive technology evolved, so did the need for more power. Generators produce direct current, which travels in one direction, as opposed to the alternating current for the electricity in our houses, which periodically reverses directions. As Tesla proved in 1887, alternating current became more attractive as it generates higher voltage more efficiently, something necessary in contemporary automobiles. But car batteries can’t use AC power since they produce DC power. As a result, the alternator’s power output is fed through diodes, which convert the AC power to DC power.

The rotor and the stator are the two components that generate power. As the engine rotates the alternator pulley, the rotor spins past three stationary stator windings, or wire coils, surrounding a fixed iron core that makes up the stator. This is referred to as a three-phase current. The coil windings are evenly spaced at intervals of 120 degrees around the iron shaft. The alternating magnetic field from the rotor produces a subsequent alternating current in the stator. This AC current is fed through stator leads into a connecting set of diodes. Two diodes connect to each stator lead to regulate the current. The diodes are used to essentially block and direct the current. Since batteries need DC current, the diodes become a one-way valve that will only allow current to pass in the same direction.

Three-phase alternators have three sets of windings; they’re more efficient than a single-phase alternator, which produce a single-phase AC current. When working properly, the three windings produce three currents that make up the three phases. Adding all three together produces the total AC output of the stator.

The two basic stator winding designs are delta wound and wye style. Delta wound are easily identifiable by their shape, as they’re triangular. These windings allow for a high current flow at lower RPM. Wye windings resemble the flux capacitor seen in “Back to the Future.” These windings are ideal for diesel engines, as they produce higher voltage than delta stators at even lower RPM.

After the AC/DC conversion, the resulting voltage is ready to use in the battery. Too much or too little voltage can damage the battery, as well as other electrical components. To ensure the correct amount, a voltage regulator determines when and how much voltage is needed in the battery. One of two types of regulators are found in most alternators: The grounded regulator works by controlling the amount of negative or battery ground going into the winding in the rotor, while a grounded field type works the other way around – by controlling the amount of battery positive. Neither poses an advantage over the other.

Put on a Spare Tire

What you will need:

– A car jack
– Spare tire
– A lug nut wrench (tire iron)

Step 1 – Make sure you are parked in a safe place. Also ensure that you have the parking brake and hazard lights on.

Step 2 – Get out all of the above items from your trunk.

Step 3 – Loosen the lug nuts with the lug nut wrench in a star pattern.

Step 4 – Safely jack up your car. A safe place is generally anywhere on the frame, however check the owner’s manual for recommended locations. Jack it up a little bit higher than is needed for the flat tire because when you place the spare on it will need to be higher than the flat tire.

Step 5 – Take all lug nuts off, remove flat tire and replace with spare tire. Make sure you place the lug nuts in a safe location where they will not roll away or get lost.

Step 6 – Replace the lug nuts and hand tighten them. Tighten them in a star pattern just as you loosened them.

Step 7 – Slowly lower the jack and remove it from underneath the car.

Step 8 – Tighten the lug nuts as much as you possibly can.

Step 9 – Safely put all the items back into your trunk.